Reach Us +32 466902141

A Case Study for Verification of “E = mc2”: Calculation of Food Shortage

Koyunoğlu C1,2*

1Istanbul Technical University-Energy Institute, Ayazaga Campus, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

2Department of Energy Systems and Engineering, Yalova University, Yalova, Turkey

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Cemil Koyunoğlu
Department of Energy Systems and Engineering, Yalova University, Yalova, 77200, Turkey
Tel: +90-212-285-3939
Fax: +90-212-285-3884
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 27, 2019; Accepted date: May 08, 2019; Published date: May 15, 2019

Citation: Koyunoğlu C (2019) A Case Study for Verification of “E = mc2”: Calculation of Food Shortage. Insights Biomed Vol.4 No.2:9. DOI: 10.36648/2572-5610.4.2.60

Visit for more related articles at Insights in Biomedicine


“Earth Overshoot Day” means that we will begin to manage with the foods that are produced in 1 year in our world on 4 August, which we passed, and only the foods that are stocked in the markets. Albert Einstein tried to draw attention to the use of energy stored in the form of carbohydrates as nutrients in addition to the fertility-enhancing features of the bees, with a question mark from many years ago with the interpretation of "all bees have vanished and humanity has 4 years left." The depletion of the agricultural resources declared on August 4 has turned out to be a threat to humanity.


Bees; E = mc2; Earth overshoot day; Evolutionary environment effects; Carbohydrates


According to the Ecological Footprint Atlas, we have lived in a state of ecological overshoot since the 1970s, which means that human demands have exceeded the Earth’s biocapacity [1]. Human demands measure the ecological assets that a given population requires to produce the natural resources it uses and biocapacity refers to the productivity of that ecological asset [2]. Human demands alter ecosystems by creating ecological pressures such as land-use changes, resource extraction and depletion (such as deforestation and overfishing), emissions of waste and pollution and the modification and movement of organisms [3]. The resulting environmental impacts include, but are not limited to, climate change, land degradation, loss of biodiversity, and pollution [4-6]. Consequences affect primarily the very poor and vulnerable populations in developing countries through, for instance, famine, water shortages, and competition over resources [7-10].


Following sections are explained due to the below physical laws used to calculate the food shortage according to the Einstein’s famous quote; Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law, Doppler effect, Stefan-Boltzmann distribution law Section, E=mc2 defines as rest energy.

How food depletion occurs?

In the Earth Overshoot Day platform declares each year nearly 1.3-billion-ton food produced in the worldwide [11]. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations gives an energy value of each food if the means of the energy content of the foods was calculated it is obtained that it is approximately 21.8 Kj/g.

The overall energy of the food is calculated as 1.3 × 1015 × 21.8 = 28.34 × 1018 j. It means ants and or bees have a role to convert sun energy to food which yearly of 28.34 × 1018 j.

The ideal body that completely absorbs all the energy falling on it is also called the black body. The amount of energy a black body emits by radiating energy per unit time is proportional to the fourth power of temperature. And calculated by Equation 1.

image (1)

This statement is known as Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law. Where E is the amount of energy emitted from surface A by irradiation with A, T is surface temperature, and is Stefan-Boltzman constant [12].

If the unit energy amount (heat current) W, the surface area m2 and the temperature are expressed in K, then the size of σ becomes as σ =W/ (m2.k4). The value is 5.6697 × 10-8 W/(m2.K4). According to Equation (1), E= 28.34 × 1018 (j).

And if we divide E with the value of σ we have nearly 4.99851 × 1026 (m2.K4.s). Then if we divide with sun surface area of 73080 × 1012 (km2) we, therefore, have 6839,778325 (K4.s). Sun surface temperature is known as 5,778 K so the value of time calculated as 2,2091967 × 10-8 hours. It means, one year of food production energy comes from the sun with 2,2091967 × 10-8 hours. Also expressed as 67.72 × 1014 km/h velocity (distance between earth and sun is 149.6 million km). The energy 28.34 × 1018 (j) will be used to calculate the usage of energy in the following section.

For the “Doppler effect” of bees are calculated due to the equation below [13-16].

E = E1+ (1+V2/C2)

28.34 × 1018 = E1 + (1 + (67.72 × 1014)2/(300000)2)

E1= -2,33522E+19 J means key animals in the world are helping about growing food. For occasions, nectar-eating bats are pivotal pollinators for more than 500 plant species, a considerable lot of which are environmentally huge, fruitivorous bats travel far separations, helping plants to develop and make due in an assortment of areas, so bats have been calling "ranchers of the tropics." honey bees or ants devoured. Termites are detritivores and decomposers, which means they expend decaying plant matter and assume essential parts in reusing environment vitality, and also in adjusting biogeochemical cycles. Not at all like different detritivores, the termite gut is one of a kind in that it contains microorganisms that separate cellulose (building obstructs for plants), which is unpalatable without this advantageous relationship. Seed-collecting ants transport seeds to their supplement rich homes, where plants can securely develop, free of damage from herbivores. Ants in some cases travel far separations with seeds, allowing plants their coveted dispersal objective for less light, space, sustenance, and water rivalry with different plants. For what reason would ants be so kind? Ants appreciate devouring elaiosomes, little structures on the external surface of seeds, without hurting the plant. Ants help in disintegration and turn up more soil than night crawlers. At the point when ants dig tunnels, they circulate air through the dirt and reuse supplements. This action is environmentally significant in keeping up sound soil for plant (sustenance) development. Ants even help decrease the utilization of synthetic manures and the requirement for water system. Huge numbers of us are familiar with seeing honeybees fly around our lawns on summer nights, yet what we may not comprehend is exactly how essential these animals are to our proceeded with presence on this planet. Honeybees are in charge of pollinating roughly 250,000 plant species. Without the honeybees’ work, these plants would soon wane into annihilation, which would have a thump on impact on the herbivorous creature species who rely upon them for survival and would in the long run reason meat-eating creatures' numbers to decrease as well, as their prey species vanish. Winged animals play out a wide assortment of natural parts, including woodland decay, bug control, supplement reusing, bio-sign of environment wellbeing, plant fertilization, and seed dispersal. Some ground-abiding winged animals even help circulate air through and turn up soil with their paws. Despite the fact that subterranean insect, termite, bat, and frog species may be the experts of their exchanges, feathered creatures unquestionably appear like the jack of all [17-29].

It is known that in ecological communities, for example, there are reciprocal interactions between plant species and animal fodder or seed distributors. It is known that this interaction varies according to the degree of functioning in nature due to differences in species characteristics. Until now, it has not been investigated how ecological networks correlate biotic function grades with a climatic niche broadness and vulnerability to climate change. The prospect of this research is to prevent species extinction and to break down species from ecological communities under climate change [23]. For this reason, it is tried to explain how the disappearance of species in this study is mathematically expressed and how these creatures depend on the human species. Because human beings are indirectly in direct relationship with other living species in nature.

Because the interactions of plants and their five key pollinators above are the main supporters of terrestrial biodiversity, and it is very important for our society's food safety. Unfortunately, the introduction of alien species into local ecosystems, climate change, widespread use of pesticides, habitat loss and deterioration seriously threaten the integrity of these interactions in a negative way, and these issues need to be investigated. Despite the importance of pollinator interactions with plants, the recent increase in factors that threaten food production due to the above problems suggests that it is also of great importance to determine these interactions [20]. Today, the work in this area is often divided into different disciplines and varies according to the analytical approaches used in most of the studies. However, as biodiversity and interactions are measured in different forms, the focus is on the emergence of results on a wide range of scales and the use of specific methods instead of general scientific hypotheses. Apart from this, nowadays biological diversity and the dynamics that link them are variable, as these dynamics are both dependent on species populations and biomass, as well as their dependence on specific functional groups or key species [27].


According to the Stefan-Boltzmann distribution law [30-32].


for the population of the humans (no)


image = 0.99860987431. image means world population will decrease by (1-0.99860987431) amount.

Confirmation earth overshoot day by famous energy equation

In modern physics E = mc2 defines as rest energy and “The energy mc2 associated with rest mass m rather than motion is called the rest energy of the particle” [33]. So the rest “food stock (= mass)” for the (1-0.99860987431) amount of people can be calculated for the rest of time 1 human needs roughly 9414 Kj/day and if 7.442 billion of people in 2017 lost its (1-0.99860987431) amount there will be reducing 10345316 population of human and;

The total energy is 28,34 × 1018 (j) and the rest energy is calculated as 7442000000-10345316= 2292942356 humans and the rest energy are 2292942356 × 9414000 (j) =2,159 × 1016 (j)/day. So, the total human population need 28,34 × 1018 (j) 2,159 × 1016 (j/ day) = 1312,64 day to survive is equal nearly 4 year as Einstein’s quotes. So, if bees disappeared humans will have only 4 years to survive [34-42].


The author declares using solar energy to produce food for human population are depending on the key animals which above mentioned ants, bats, bees, termites and also birds. Furthermore, research into the use of renewable energy sources has become an urgent necessity, as well as exploring why global climate is deteriorating, exploring the reduction of carbon footprints and widespread poverty in the world, as well as sustainable development and increased nutritional consumption of means of achieving a cleaner environment. Although some steps have been taken in this direction, such as investigating the effect of microbial organisms, practical measures using 5 key living things are still missing.


  1. Bluszcz (2016) A comparative analysis of selected synthetic indicators of sustainability. Proc Soc Behav Sci 220: 40-50.
  2. Galli T, Wiedmann E, Ercin D, Knoblauch B, Ewing S (2012) Giljum, integrating ecological, carbon and water footprint into a “footprint family” of indicators: Definition and role in tracking human pressure on the planet. Ecolog Indicat 16: 100-112.
  3. Lindahl P, Robèrt KH, Ny H, Broman G (2014) Strategic sustainability considerations in materials management. J Cleaner Product 64: 98-103.
  4. Goeppert, Czaun M, Prakash GKS, Olah GA (2012) Air as the renewable carbon source of the future: an overview of CO2 capture from the atmosphere. Energy Environ Sci 5: 7833-7853.
  5. Huang L, Liu Y, Krigsvoll G, Johansen F (2017) Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost of university dormitories in the southeast China: Case study of the university town of Fuzhou. J Cleaner Product 1: 1-4.
  6. Arvizu D (2010) New science strengthens the promise of renewable fuels. Energy Environ Sci 3: 1378-1381.
  7. Schowalter TD (2016) Application to Sustainability of Ecosystem Services, Insect Ecology, (4th edn), Academic Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  8. Lin CSK, Pfaltzgraff LA, Herrero-Davila L, Mubofu EB, Abderrahim S, et al. (2013) Food waste as a valuable resource for the production of chemicals, materials and fuels. Current situation and global perspective. Energy Environ Sci 6: 426-464.
  9. Zhou J, Chang VWC, Fane AG (2011) Environmental life cycle assessment of brackish water reverses osmosis desalination for different electricity production models. Energy Environ Sci 4: 2267-2278.
  10. Fajardy M, Dowell NM (2017) Can BECCS deliver sustainable and resource efficient negative emissions? Energy Environ Sci 10: 1389-1426.
  12. Chin CW, Chiu HY, Stothers R (1966) Astrophysical evidence for the direct electron-neutrino weak interaction. Ann Phys 39280-39299.
  13. Bampi F, Zordan C (1989) Do experiments imply special relativity? Ann Phys 190: 428-444.
  14. Hameka HF (1964) Theory of resonance optical rotation. Ann Phys 26: 122-130.
  15. Trenčevski K, Celakoska E (2018) Complex equations of motion for a body under gravitational influence by using a nine-parameter space–time bundle with the structural group SO(3,C). Ann Phys 395: 15-25.
  16. Bampi F (1989) Do experiments imply special relativity? Ann Phys 190: 214.
  17. Kantsa RA, Raguso AG, Dyer JM, Olesen T, Tscheulin T, et al. (2018) Disentangling the role of floral sensory stimuli in pollination networks. Nature Commun 9: 1041.
  18. Knauer AC, Bakhtiari M, Schiestl FP (2018) Crab spiders impact floral-signal evolution indirectly through removal of florivores. Nature Commun 9: 1367.
  19. Glaum P, Kessler A (2017) Functional reduction in pollination through herbivore-induced pollinator limitation and its potential in mutualist communities. Nature Communic 8: 2031.
  20. Valdovinos FS, Berlow EL, Espanés P, Ramos-Jiliberto R, Vázquez DP, et al. (2018) Species traits and network structure predict the success and impacts of pollinator invasions. Nature Commun 9: 2153.
  21. Gervasi DDL, Schiestl FP (2017) Real-time divergent evolution in plants driven by pollinators. Nature Commun 8: 14691.
  22. Torices R, Gómez JM, Pannell JR (2018) Kin discrimination allows plants to modify investment towards pollinator attraction. Nature Commun 9: 2018.
  23. Schleuning M, Fründ J, Schweiger O, Welk E, Albrecht J, et al. (2016) Ecological networks are more sensitive to plant than to animal extinction under climate change. Nature Commun 7: 13965.
  24. Hua F, Wang X, Zheng X, Fisher B, Wang L, et al. (2016) Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme. Nature Commun 7: 12717.
  25. Pan AH, Li C, Acevedo-Gonzalez JP, Rendon G, Fields CJ, et al. (2017) A soft selective sweep during rapid evolution of gentle behaviour in an Africanized honeybee. Nature Commun 8: 1550.
  26. Albrecht J, Classen A, Vollstädt MGR, Mayr A, Mollel NP, et al. (2018) Plant and animal functional diversity drive mutualistic network assembly across an elevational gradient. Nature Commun 9: 3177.
  27. Ricketts TH, Watson KB, Koh I, Ellis AM, Nicholson CC, et al. (2016) Disaggregating the evidence linking biodiversity and ecosystem services. Nature Commun 7: 13106.
  28. Peters MK, Hemp A, Appelhans T, Behler C, Classen A, et al. (2016) Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level. Nature Commun 7: 13736.
  29. Staniczenko PPA, Lewis OT, Tylianakis JM, Albrecht M, Coudrain V, et al. (2017) Predicting the effect of habitat modification on networks of interacting species. Nature Commun 8: 792.
  30. Mehta P, Polkovnikov A (2012) Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines. Ann Physics 332: 110-126.
  31. Fukushima K, Murase K, Pu S (2017) Fixed points and flow analysis on off-equilibrium dynamics in the boson Boltzmann equation. Ann Physics 386: 76-96.
  32. Snoke DW, Liu G, Girvin SM (2012) The basis of the Second Law of thermodynamics in quantum field theory. Ann Physics 327: 1825-1851.
  33. Young HD, Freedman RA (2015) University physics with modern physics, 12th (edn), Addison Wesley Publishing Company Incorporated, USA.
  34. Akinsemolu AA (2018) The role of microorganisms in achieving the sustainable development goals. J Cleaner Produc 182: 139-155.
  35. Irum RA, Malik IA, Ashraf A, Rongqiong L, Liu G, et al. (2018) Ecological footprint of Rawalpindi; Pakistan's first footprint analysis from urbanization perspective. J Cleaner Produc 170: 362-368.
  36. Lara S, Crispín AF, Téllez MCL (2018) Participatory rural appraisal as an educational tool to empower sustainable community processes. J Cleaner Produc 172: 4254-4262.
  37. Galli CA, Patrizi N, Pulselli FM (2018) Learning and teaching sustainability: The contribution of ecological footprint calculators. J Cleaner Produc 174: 1000-1010.
  38. Qian W, Hörisch J, Schaltegger S (2018) Environmental management accounting and its effects on carbon management and disclosure quality. J Cleaner Produc 174: 1608-1619.
  39. Bui M, Adjiman CS, Bardow A, Anthony EJ, Boston A, et al. (2018) Carbon capture and storage (CCS): The way forward. Energy Environ Sci 11: 1062-1176.
  40. Lari GM, Pastore G, Haus M, Ding Y, Papadokonstantakis S, et al. (2018) Environmental and economical perspectives of a glycerol biorefinery. Energy Environ Sci 11: 1012-1029.
  41. Lü J, Sheahan C, Fu P (2011) Metabolic engineering of algae for fourth generation biofuels production. Energy Environ Sci 4: 2451-2466.
  42. Herzog A, Belaidi A, Ogacho T (2009) Dittrich, inorganic solid-state solar cell with ultra-thin nanocomposite absorber based on nanoporous TiO2 and In2S3. Energy Environ Sci 2: 962-964.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Viewing options

Recommended Conferences
Post your comment

Share This Article

Flyer image