Mechanisms of AMR: Bacteria Won the Battle Against Antibiotics

Antibiotic was discovered in 1926 by Alexander Flaming but only in 1943 after World War-II, penicillin was marketed for all followed by tetracycline and streptomycin. However, high dose uses of antibiotics cause rapid destruction of gut microbiota that help human growth and metabolism by providing vitamins and many other complex biomolecules. It appears that intestinal cells signal to bacteria that are also induced save its soul creating many mdr genes and activating gene transfer mechanisms by combining R-plasmids with F’-plasmids. Thus, large conjugative MDR plasmids have 5-15 mdr genes, 6-10 metal resistant genes and two dozen TRA genes for conjugation as well as new protein synthesizing genes like transposases, integrases, topoisomerases, resolvases, restriction endonucleases, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases. Physicians do not know how to cure KPC2 Klebsiella kneumoniae, NDM1 Escherichia coli or MRSA Staphylococcus aureus, MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Sadly, once used ampicillin, oxacillin, streptomycin, cefotaxime, azithromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and chlormphenicol are useless against those bacteria. Our study with Ganga River water of Kolkata indicated that super drugs like imipenem, colistin, tigecycline, amikacin, ceftizidime, vancomycin, levofloxacin and linezolid resistant bacterial species were generated creating a antibiotic dark age even we had thousand antibiotics in the selves.


Chakraborty AK

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