Mosquitoes are insects that bit animal hosts to get blood as the nutrient source to develop their eggs. They may transmit a wide range of pathogens such as viruses and parasites to the hosts’ body through their blood meal. It may lead to a number of mosquito-borne diseases. In Iran, there is a major risk for mosquito-borne diseases due to the introducing the exotic mosquito species from the neighboring countries. Recently, in neighboring countries of Iran, epidemics of mosquito-borne viral infections including chikungunya, dengue and West Nile infections in Pakistan, dengue and Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia, and West Nile infection in Iraq have been reported. Ae. albopictus has become a significant pest mosquito species in Pakistan and has also been reported from Syria, Lebanon and Turkey. According to the World Health Organization WHO, malaria is in the pre-elimination stage in Iran. In this review, it was attempted to discuss some issue including mosquito bionomics, mosquito-borne diseases in human and surveillance. Mosquito-borne disease in Iran including historically reported diseases, emerging infectious diseases as well as the mosquito fauna of Iran were also reviewed.
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